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ECHNATON  ~1360

Akhenaten (often also spelled Echnaton, Akhnaton, or rarely Ikhnaton; meaning Effective spirit of Aten) was known before the fifth year of his reign as Amenhotep IV (sometimes given its Greek form, Amenophis IV, and meaning Amun is Satisfied). A Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt, he ruled for 17 years and died in 1336 BC or 1334 BC. He is especially noted for abandoning traditional Egyptian polytheism and introducing worship centered on the Aten which is sometimes described as monotheistic, but henotheism would be a more accurate description, since he ranked the Aten above other gods but did not deny their existence. Indeed, an early inscription likens them to stars as compared with the sun, and later official language avoids calling the Aten a god, as if to create for the solar deity a status above mere gods. Akhenaten tried to bring about a departure from traditional religion that in the end would not be accepted. After his death, traditional religious practice was gradually restored, and when some dozen years later rulers without clear rights of succession from the Eighteenth Dynasty founded a new dynasty, they discredited Akhenaten and his immediate successors, referring to Akhenaten himself as 'the enemy' in archival records. He was all but lost from history until the discovery, in the nineteenth century, of Amarna, the site of Akhetaten, the city he built for the Aten. Early excavations at Amarna by Flinders Petrie sparked interest in the enigmatic pharaoh which increased with the discovery in the Valley of the Kings, at Luxor, of the tomb of King Tutankhamun, who may have been his son. Akhenaten remains an interesting figure, as does his Queen, Nefertiti. Their modern interest comes partly from his connection with Tutankhamun, partly from the unique style and high quality of the pictorial arts he patronized, and partly from ongoing interest in—and, all too often, less than verifiable claims about—the religion he attempted to establish. (click to see all the article on Wikipedia)

 

阿肯那頓  ~西元前136十年 

阿肯那頓(也拼作Echnaton, Akhnaton,少部分拼成埃赫納頓,意即阿頓(埃及太陽神)光輝的意志)在他的王朝頭五年,被稱為阿蒙霍特普四世(有時是以希臘的形式,稱為阿蒙諾菲斯四世,意即阿蒙表示滿意)。他是埃及第十八王朝的法老,統治了十七年,於西元前1336年或1334年去世。他進行了宗教改革,拋棄了埃及傳統的多神教,改將阿頓設立為崇拜中心的一神論,由於阿頓的地位高於其他神祇,稱之為一神教更為精準,雖然他並沒有否定其他神祇的存在。事實上,在早期的碑文中,曾用了太陽與星星來類比,後期的官方語文中則避免稱阿頓為神,而以太陽神取而代之。阿肯那頓試圖改變傳統宗教,但到了其任期末期,改革仍並不被接受。他去世之後,傳統的宗教習俗又逐漸恢復,當十幾年後,統治者建立了一新王朝,而非從第十八王朝明確的繼承下來,他們敗壞了阿肯那頓及其繼承人的名聲,將阿肯那頓記錄成敵人。他在歷史上的所有記錄幾乎全部消失,直到十九世紀時,在阿瑪納,阿肯那頓為了阿頓而建築的城市,相關紀錄又再被發掘出來。由弗林德斯.皮特里於阿瑪納的早期發掘,引發了人們對於這位神祕法老的興趣,墓地位於盧克索的國王谷的圖坦卡門國王,可能是他的兒子。阿肯那頓依然是個有趣的話題,如同他的皇后娜芙蒂蒂一樣。他們新潮的興趣一部份如同圖坦卡門一樣,一部分則具獨特風格及高品質的圖案藝術,一部分則是有關於他試圖建立的宗教制度。

(維基連結:阿肯那頓)

 

:圖坦卡門跟娜芙蒂蒂還比較為人所知,阿肯那頓就……

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