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(連續圖片的第九張)

EVOLUTION UNDER WAY  ~2,2 million years

Paranthropus boisei (originally called Zinjanthropus boisei and then Australopithecus boisei until recently) was an early hominin and described as the largest of the Paranthropus species. It lived from about 2.6 until about 1.2 million years ago during the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs in Eastern Africa. (click to see all the article on Wikipedia)

Homo rudolfensis is a fossil hominin species discovered in 1972, at Koobi Fora on the east side of Lake Rudolf (now Lake Turkana) in Kenya. The fossil has an estimated age of 1.9 million years. Originally thought to be a member of the species Homo habilis, he was the center of much debate concerning its species. Assigned initially to Homo habilis, the skull was at first incorrectly dated at nearly three million years old.(click to see all the article on Wikipedia)

Homo habilis ("handy man") is a species of the genus Homo, which lived from approximately 2.5 million to at least 1.6 million years ago at the beginning of the Pleistocene period in Tanzania, East Africa. Homo habilis (or possibly H. rudolfensis) is the earliest known species of the genus Homo. Homo habilis remains are often accompanied by primitive stone tools (e.g. Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania and Lake Turkana, Kenya).(click to see all the article on Wikipedia)

Paranthropus robustus was originally discovered in Southern Africa in 1938. The development of P. robustus, namely in cranial features, seemed to be aimed in the direction of a "heavy-chewing complex". Because of the definitive traits that are associated with this robust line of australopithecine, anthropologist Robert Broom erected the genus Paranthropus and placed this species into it. Paranthropus robustus (considered for a time by the scientific community as Australopithecus robustus) is generally dated to have lived between 2.0 and 1.2 million years ago. (click to see all the article on Wikipedia)

演化接續進行中 ~22十萬年前

鮑氏傍人(最先被稱為鮑氏東非人,然後是鮑氏南方古猿,直到最近正式更名)是早期的原人,並且被認為是最大的傍人。他居住於東非,約26十萬年到12十萬年前,在上新世及更新世時期。

盧多爾夫人是人科下的化石物種,於1972年於庫比福勒發現,在肯亞的魯道夫湖(現今被稱為圖爾卡納湖)西邊。其化石估計有19十萬年。盧多爾夫人原本被認為是能人的一支,而為了判別其物種,有著不少的辯論。由於一開始歸類在能人之中,這個頭骨被錯估到了3百萬年之久。

巧人(手巧的人)是人屬當中的一個種,存在於約25十萬到至少16十萬年前時的更新世初期,在東非的坦桑尼亞。巧人(或者可能是盧多爾夫人)是已知人屬中最早的一種。巧人周遭通常都找得到原始的石器(像是在東非的奧度瓦伊峽谷,坦桑尼亞和圖爾卡納湖)

羅百氏傍人最先在1983年於非洲南部發現。羅百氏傍人的頭顱骨,似乎是往重型咀嚼為方向而發展的。由於其特質明顯地與南方古猿有關,人類學家羅伯特.布魯姆特別將其獨立出來,成為傍人屬。羅百氏傍人(考量到科學界定出的南方古猿粗壯種的所在時期)一般是認為存在於2百萬到12十萬年前。

(維基連結:鮑氏傍人盧多爾夫人巧人羅百氏傍人)

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