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NEOLITHIC  from ~9000 to ~3000

新石器時代 從~9千年 到 ~3千年前

The Neolithic Age, Era, or Period, or New Stone Age, was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 9500 BCE in the Middle East that is traditionally considered the last part of the Stone Age . The Neolithic followed the terminal Holocene Epipalaeolithic periods, beginning with the rise of farming, which produced the "Neolithic Revolution" and ending when metal tools became widespread in the Copper Age (chalcolithic) or Bronze Age or developing directly into the Iron Age, depending on geographical region. The Neolithic is not a specific chronological period, but rather a suite of behavioural and cultural characteristics, including the use of wild and domestic crops and the use of domesticated animals.

Neolithic culture began in the Levant (Jericho, modern-day West Bank) about 9500 BCE. It developed directly from the Epipaleolithic Natufian culture in the region, whose people pioneered the use of wild cereals, which then evolved into true farming. The Natufians can thus be called "proto-Neolithic" (12,500–9500 BCE or 12,000-9500 BCE). As the Natufians had become dependent on wild cereals in their diet, and a sedentary way of life had begun among them, the climatic changes associated with the Younger Dryas are thought to have forced people to develop farming. By 9500–9000 BCE, farming communities arose in the Levant and spread to Asia Minor, North Africa and North Mesopotamia. Early Neolithic farming was limited to a narrow range of plants, both wild and domesticated, which included einkorn wheat, millet and spelt, and the keeping of dogs, sheep and goats. By about 8000 BCE, it included domesticated cattle and pigs, the establishment of permanently or seasonally inhabited settlements, and the use of pottery. (click to see all the article on Wikipedia)

新石器時代,或新石器時期,是一個人類技術發展的時期,始於西元前9500年的中東,傳統上認為該時期為石器時代的最後一部分。新石器時代接續全新世的中石器時代而來,始於農業的興起,產生了新石器革命,末於金屬工具變得普及的紅銅時代(銅石並用時代)或青銅時代,或是發展後直接進入了鐵器時代,該些差異取決於地理區域的不同。

新石器文化開始於約西元前9500年前的黎凡特(傑里科,於地中海東岸)。其由中石器時代的納圖夫文化直接轉化而來,該文化的人民最早利用了野生穀物,然後演變成真正的農業。納圖夫人因此可被稱為原始新石器時期”(西元前12500~9500年前或是西元前12000~9500年前)。由於納圖夫人依賴野生穀物作為其飲食的一部分,並且習於久坐的生活方式,新仙女木事件引發的氣候變更被認為是促使人們開發農業的原因。

(維基連結:新石器時代)

新仙女木事件:距今1.29萬年前開始的急速變冷的時期。這段時期北歐的氣溫較目前夏季低5-8℃,冬季低10-12℃。第四紀最後一次冰期約在距今2.1萬至1.8萬年達到頂點,北半球高緯度地區冰雪覆蓋面積達到最大,稱為末次冰期最盛期(Last Glacial Maximum, LGM)。接著可能因冰原崩塌或溫度上升造成融解而逐步退卻。在1.49萬年前開始有顯著的增暖期。森林生長往北延伸。在1.4萬年前又變冷,森林又被草地取代。可以沉積的草本植物仙女木(Dryas Octopetala)遺跡為證,稱為老仙女木短冷期(Old Dryas stadial)。1.35萬年前之後又變暖,卻在1.29萬年前出現一段極速變冷的時期,低溫期到1.16萬年前結束,約持續1,300年,稱為新仙女木事件。

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