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(連續圖片的第十張)

EVOLUTION UNDER WAY  ~1,8 million years

Homo ergaster is an extinct hominid species that lived in eastern and southern Africa beginning about 1.9 million years ago during the late Pliocene epoch. Homo erectus and Homo heidelbergensis are probably the migratory descendants of H. ergaster. (click to see all the article on Wikipedia)

Homo erectus (Latin: upright man) is an extinct species of the genus Homo, which originated in Africa and spread as far as China and Java. It is considered to be a direct ancestor of modern humans. H. erectus originally migrated from Africa during the Early Pleistocene, possibly as a result of the operation of the Saharan pump, around 2.0 million years ago, and dispersed throughout much of the Old World. Fossilized remains 1.8 and 1.0 million years old have been found in Africa (e.g., Lake Turkana and Olduvai Gorge), Europe (Georgia, Spain), Indonesia (e.g., Sangiran and Trinil), Vietnam, and China (e.g., Shaanxi). (click to see all the article on Wikipedia)

Homo georgicus is a species of hominin that was suggested in 2002 to describe fossil skulls and jaws found in Dmanisi, Georgia in 1999 and 2001, which seem intermediate between Homo habilis and H. erectus. A partial skeleton was discovered in 2001. The fossils are about 1.8 million years old. (click to see all the article on Wikipedia)

演化不斷進行中 ~18十萬年前

匠人是人科當中已經滅絕的物種,存在於非洲東部及南部,開始於19十萬年前的上新世晚期。直立人與海德堡人可能是匠人的直屬後裔。

直立人(拉丁文:直立的人)是人屬當中已經滅絕的一種,起源於非洲,散佈遠達中國與爪哇。牠被認為是現代人類的直接祖先。直立人經由在撒哈拉泵方式,在更新世初期從非洲遷徙出去,約在2百萬年前,在舊世界上廣闊地分散開來。在以下地方發現了18十萬年及1百萬年前的化石,像是非洲(例如:圖爾卡納湖和奧杜瓦伊峽谷),歐洲(喬治亞,西班牙),印尼(例如:桑吉蘭和特里尼爾),越南和中國(例如:陝西)

(譯者註:撒哈拉泵,指的是居民隨著氣候的變化不斷在北非地區遷入和遷出,泵應該是取其形狀為名。)

格魯及亞人是人族的一種,於2002年被提出來用來形容在1999年和2001年時,在喬治亞的德馬尼斯所發現的化石頭骨及顎骨,似乎是介於能人與直立人之間。局部的格魯及亞人的骨骼亦在2001年被發現。這化石約可追溯自18十萬年前之久。

(維基連結:匠人直立人撒哈拉泵格魯及亞人)(撒哈拉泵維基無中文版)

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